Integrated CPS Developed Based on Open Platforms in Response to Accidents/Disasters in High-Rise Complex Facilities
Due to the overcrowding and development of downtown areas, the number of high-rise buildings and underground complexes is increasing, as is the number of major national facilities in metropolitan underground cities. With this increased urban development, there is also a greater likelihood of mass causalities or extensive damage in the case of a disaster or other unprecedented, large-scale accident. The Multi-Disaster Reponse Research Group was established to respond quickly and effectively to accidents and disasters using “risk factor prediction and rapid recovery technology” and “cyber-physical system (CPS)” to reduce the potential damage caused by accidents and disasters in high-rise and complex facilities (National Research Council of Science & Technology, 2016).
Disaster Data Collection
CPS is a system that uses engineering technology to combine aspects of the physical world and the cyber world, allowing the system to react in real time to different events. Although there are still several technical barriers, the sensor-based CPS is being installed in various venues domestically and overseas as a useful and efficient system for disaster response. The system, designed by the Multi-Disaster Response Research Group, aims at minimizing human casualties in the case of a disaster and is also being developed with the goal of commercialization. Given these main objectives, the research team is focused on analysis and immediate response using existing sensors. When configuring the overall system, from sensor placement to monitoring, information collection was focused in blind spots while seeking ways to stabilize and take full advantage of sensor networks.
Analysis and Interpretation of Collected Data
In order to actively respond to multiple and diverse disasters, it is necessary to acquire technologies that allow people to quickly detect and analyze disasters and to share reliable information. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the collection of complex disaster information for large facilities in urban areas. It is also important to evaluate risks for each disaster type, develop analytical algorithms, build a database system for analysis, and develop damage prediction & analysis technology (software).
Technologies for multi-disaster analysis and behavior prediction ultimately intend to develop the following core capabilities:
* It is necessary to establish standards for multi-disaster sensor data related to skyscrapers and complex facilities, and to develop, HPC-based multi-disaster data analysis and forecasting technology. In this regard, the research team developed guidelines for standardization (v1.0), (including experimental data for each disaster type being used/collected for each task and IoT measurement data). In addition, the team also acquired a multi-disaster analysis prediction technology for highly reliable Korean high-rise complex facilities, and developed HPC-based linked analysis support software (HPC-WS v1.0).
* A precision analysis technique was developed in consideration of the interconnected relationships between the super high-rise structures and underground complex facilities to evaluate the dynamic behaviors of precise structures. In addition, the team also developed a “Dynamic Stability Structure Evaluation System.” This was done by building a precisely analyzed DB that considered the dynamic relationship between structures and the ground. In addition, a manual for dynamic analysis was developed in consideration of upper and lower structures and ground conditions (Figure 1).
[Figure 1] Dynamic Stability Structural Evaluation System
* In terms of flooding, the team sought to develop a technology to predict subsurface flooding based on a quasi-three-dimensional numerical model with a submersion depth error of 5 mm or less in the underground space of complex facilities. An empirical-based, highly accurate flood forecasting database was developed to advance high-accuracy flood forecasting techniques and to develop related technologies for underground complex facilities(Figure2).
[Figure 2] High-accuracy flood forecasting method
* In terms of fire, a simulator technology was developed to, at the construction planning stage, predict fire hazards that may be present in high-rise/complex facilities and, at the maintenance stage, to predict fire damage. A risk factor and damage scale prediction system was developed that can provide fire response information to those involved in building fires (Figure 3).
[Figure 3] Risk factor and damage prediction system
* Macroscopic behavior evaluation software and a real-time structural stability prediction database was developed that can be utilized in the case of a fire. This software and database was created through the development of a hybrid fire resistance simulation technology involving an experimental method that can predict the macroscopic behaviors of structures in the event of a fire. The research team also developed a tool to diagnose structural hazards in complex disasters. This was done using software and real-time monitoring data.
* The research team also established a disaster risk assessment method based on a multi-disaster scenario affecting a high-rise building. This method was used to propose management standards for the prediction of and quick response to disaster situations. The team developed a high-rise building, multi-disaster scenario database and software (EDPASS) to build a disaster response system. The system enables risk assessment and management for each high-rise building disaster scenario.
Through this study, the team developed and secured the analysis technology needed to flexibly respond to multiple disasters. This was done by integrating the following: risk assessment by disaster scenario, such as earthquakes, flooding, and fires in high-rise buildings and complex facilities; the construction of a disaster scenario database; the evaluation of structural conditions; the development of techniques for flood forecasting; and hybrid fire resistance analysis.
Early Response and Recovery Measures
The research team sought to establish a rapid response system based on real-time disaster monitoring and intelligent forecasting by utilizing an integrated disaster response platform to protect facilities and people in the event of multiple disasters. The response strategy proceeds in the order of earthquake, fire, and flood. For seismic activity, the team developed an interconnected management system for ground structures to secure the structural safety of complex buildings linked to high-rise buildings. In the event of an earthquake, the interconnected management system allows for the evacuation of the people living in the affected facility and determines whether the facility has been damaged. This is done by analyzing information collected from various high-rise and underground complex facilities and various measuring instruments installed in the surrounding area (earthquake accelerometers, surface displacement gauges, groundwater gauges, etc.).
To protect against fires, development efforts were made that focused on improving smoke control and evacuation efficiency, both of which are directly related to minimizing human causalities. The research team also developed response technologies, such as smoke protection facilities, evacuation routes and emergency elevators. These technologies are designed to enable safe evacuation and to prevent the collapse of the affected buildings or underground structures for quick recovery following fire extinguishing. Each facility equipped with this system features a CPS, the central control device of the Convergence Research Group, and an intelligent control system that communicates in both directions in real time.
For floods, the team sought to develop optimal design techniques to prevent the flooding of underground facilities in complex facilities and to provide evacuation measures for structures and their occupants. As part of these measures, the team developed wireless flooding sensors and flood protection doors.
Integrated Disaster Information Platform
To ensure a quicker and more efficient response in the case of a disaster, the team developed a platform technology that integrates various distributed information, provides links between fragmented systems, and organically connects information, equipment, and people. The team created organic links, integrated system components, and compiled the real-time disaster response information necessary for disaster response, such as detailed facility information, real-time sensor information, and local information. Through these efforts, the team was able to create intuitive disaster information services based on three-dimensional spatial information to support decision making. The services allow users to respond to scenario-based systemic (automated) disasters through various interconnected measurement sensors and disaster response facilities—this interconnectivity is based on a universally linked interface and systemized SOPs. Figure 4 provides a schematic diagram of an integrated disaster information platform. The main functions of the integrated disaster information platform can be seen in Figure 5.
[Figure 4] Schematic diagram of information and system mechanisms handled by the platform
[Figure 5] Main functions and services of the integrated disaster information platform
* Disaster information linkage, integration, and utilization functions
- Integration of various information and sensor-facility-system connection [interface module]
- Intuitive disaster information service based on 3D spatial information
* CCTV network monitoring [dashboard]
- Based on detailed information on each specific facility, such as type/standard/material;
Smart maintenance of facilities/equipment and fire vulnerability by space;
Smoke diffusion analysis, etc.
- Big data-based sensor monitoring and real-time fire detection
* Systemic and standard disaster response system (System-SOP service) (Figure 6)
- Timely situation control through the organic linkage of information-facilities-people
- Systemic (automated) disaster response for effective response within golden time
- System-SOP Editor function for building customized SOPs reflecting the characteristics of various sites, such as residential/commercial facilities/plants
* On-site disaster support and mobile maintenance service
- Real-time communication support between the Disaster Prevention Center and disaster sites
- Delivery of step-by-step measures and site statuses
- Smart maintenance, such as facility information inquiries, through connections between on-site facilities and data objects
[Figure 6] Example of platform operation
(Information service dashboard and S-SOP operation)
The earthquake in Gyeongju in 2016 caused many people to realize that the Korean Peninsula is no longer an earthquake-free zone. This earthquake, along with the recent increase in the number of high-rise apartments and buildings nationwide have once again thrust the issue of safety into the limelight. The increased number of high-rises is particularly concerning given that the average citizen has never received basic training on how to respond to a high-rise fire.
Disaster is something that is never far away. In fact, a disaster can strike anytime, anywhere. Fortunately, with the development of high-tech industries, new disaster response technologies are constantly being developed. Researchers are conducting research with a strong sense of purpose and responsibility to protect the people and keep them safe. The technologies developed as a result of this research are expected to yield many good results if they are practically and widely used.
All citizens should approach disasters with a new perspective and become a proponent of disaster response. It is also important to keep in mind that accidents can always happen due to minor carelessness and/or neglect.
accidents can always happen due to minor carelessness and/or neglect.